In the past, Heineken seemed to make TV commercials exclusively for men. Although many of them were successful, we decided to focus on female Heineken lovers. In our new commercial, we begin with describing how busy, how much stressed out, and how tough it is to live a life as a female student in Korea. Then, we claim Heineken is able to relieve her everyday tension and helps her get relaxed at home. We hope this commercial be aired between 9 PM and 11 PM in the metropolitan buses (e.g., Yap TV) for the passengers who work hard at their workplaces and need a rest at home.
Background: As the quality of life improves, people’s interest in art increases and their emotional satisfaction becomes important. Companies often apply artwork to their product packages with the aim of satisfying people’s emotions and enhancing their brand value. However, they tend to apply well-known artwork without considering the characteristics of their target consumers. Therefore, this study aims to understand whether people’s preferences for artwork influence their attitudes toward art-infused products.
Methods: We examined whether people’s attitudes toward art-infused products are influenced by their preferences for and the market exposure of artwork. We conducted a study by recruiting 380 undergraduate students in Korea. In the study, we used 6 artworks carefully selected from textbooks and 6 art-infused hypothetical mobile phone cases accordingly.
Results: Our study revealed two findings. First, people’s attitudes toward art-infused products increased as their preferences for the artwork increased (hypothesis 1). Second, the effect of people’s art preferences on their attitudes toward art-infused products was greater when the artwork was less exposed to the market than when it was highly exposed (hypothesis 2).
Conclusions: The results of this study show that when an artwork is selected for product packaging, people’s preferences for the artwork and its market exposure should be considered, suggesting that selecting a well-known artwork is not always the best option. In sum, this study contributes to the academic discussion on mere exposure effect and art marketing, and it provides insights for designers who aim to apply artwork to differentiate their products.
Art Preference, Market Exposure, Attitude Toward Art-infused Product, Art Infusion, Mere Exposure
Snickers introduced a Korean TV commercial in 2011. In this commercial, a famous female singer behaves in a strange way until when she eats snickers. This commercial delivered a single, global message of snickers, that is, you are not you when you are hungry. Although the TV commercial is consistent with the global marketing campaign, it may fail to ring the bell for those who have not been exposed to snickers commercials in the past. Therefore, we changed this commercial by saying that when eating snickers, people satisfy their hungers instantly without wasting time. More specifically, we compare two students in our new commercial. One student eats snickers and the other does not when they commute to schools or when they study in the library. We make this commercial because contemporary college students have no time to sit down and eat lunch.
Although a wide variety of design methods are used, two questions have been little investigated: whether using many methods improves the outcome quality and who benefits more from using them. We conducted a quasi-experiment in a classroom employing a 2 (Design Method: More vs. Fewer) x 2 (Style of Processing: Verbalizer vs. Visualizer) between-subjects design. We obtained two findings from the data. First, the students using more design methods generated better outcomes than those using fewer design method. Secondly, verbal-oriented students generated better outcomes than visual-oriented students. Our obtained two findings will be discussed in the context of design process.
Design methods, design quality, style of processing, verbal, visual
Background: Empathy instruction (“please empathize with the person in the narrative”) is often provided when new product concepts are evaluated in a narrative form. However, concept evaluators tend to empathize with users differently; non-designers empathize with them insufficiently whereas designers do so sufficiently. Therefore, we expect that the effect of empathy instruction on concept evaluation will differ depending on the design expertise of individual evaluators. Empathy instruction will benefit non-designers whereas it may not benefit designers. We hypothesize that non-designers evaluate a concept more positively while designers evaluate the same concept more negatively when empathy instruction is provided than when it is not.
Methods: We conducted two studies with 74 practitioners (study 1) and 87 undergraduate students (study 2) by asking participants to evaluate a new service concept for long-distance communication. Half of the participants were provided with empathy instruction (“please watch a video clip about a long-distance couple”) and the other half were provided with control instruction (“please watch a video clip about nature). Then, we compared the concept evaluation scores between the two groups.
Results: The two studies showed that when the participants received control instruction, their concept evaluation scores between two groups did not differ. However, when they received empathy instruction, non-designers’ concept evaluation scores increased whereas designers’ concept evaluation scores decreased.
Conclusion: Our findings highlight the dark side of empathy in concept evaluation. When empathy instruction is provided for narrative concept evaluation, it needs to be used carefully depending on the individual concept evaluators. More discussions are needed for customized empathy.
Concept evaluation, design expertise, empathy instructon, narrative concept, new product development
The purpose of this study was to test whether the priming of a brainstorming task by a persona increases ideational fluency and originality, i.e. the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of creative performance. We conducted a preliminary (n = 18) and final (n = 32) experiment with international students of business. These experiments revealed that priming of brainstorming by a persona increases originality of ideas by a large effect size (Cohen’s d = .91, p = .02), and not significantly ideational fluency by a medium effect size (Cohen’s d = .33, p = .39). As an alternative explanation to empathy, the found creativity effect may be attributed to priming that retrieves related memory items and thereby facilitates idea generation. As practical implications, design thinking practitioners can expect more original ideas and overcome design fixation if they brainstorm on a persona which is modelled in a concise and consistent way that caters to understanding the user need.
Heather Fraser published “Design works: how to tackle your toughest innovation challenges through business design” five years ago. It demonstrates how organizations can drive innovation and growth through Business Design – a discipline that integrates design-inspired methods and mindsets into business development and planning. Roger Martin said in his forward that “This book tells the story of the 3 Gears of Business Design, simply and practically. Its goal is to provide an easy-to-use guide for organizations that are eager to harness the power of Business Design.” The Korean version of the Design works is published in Korea.
Author: Heather M. F. Fraser / A seasoned business strategist, brand-marketing expert, and longtime entrepreneur and educator, Heather is a global thought leader in Business Design. Heather co-founded Rotman DesignWorks with Roger Martin in 2005 and served as Executive Director of DesignWorks through 2012. She has cultivated Business Design as a discipline, delivered student curriculum, and led innovation programs for over 3000 executives. She advises leading organizations on how to advance their business through innovation, including teams from Procter & Gamble, Nestle, Pfizer, General Electric, Target, and VF Corporation.
Translator: Ran Yoon / Ran Yoon is a product planner and marketer at SK Telecom, the leading service carrier company in Korea, and collaborates with a wide variety of planners, developers, and designers. Previously, she worked as a planner and marketer at Samsung Electronics Canada.
Please click here for more detailed information about the Korean-version Design Works.
Most cocktail glasses are designed to hold the unique aroma of the cocktail to maximize its taste. However, some glasses play different roles. While I visited Singapore, my friend recommended me to visit Loof, a rooftop bar. It is located across the famous Raffels Hotel, a colonial-style super luxury hotel in the downtown. According to the website, this bar is
Awarded as Singapore’s best rooftop bar, Loof serves up quality whimsy, fresh nostalgia and unbridled playfulness in an urban garden atop Odeon Towers in downtown CBD. Enjoy carefully crafted Southeast Asian inspired cocktails with bar snacks that have a local twist. Then take a trip down memory lane and purchase little gems of locally-curated nostalgia at The Mama Shop. Bask in the cool shade of Loof’s urban garden and take in the best view of Raffles Hotel. Soak up infectious beats from resident DJs and themed party nights.
I wanted to drink energy booster since I spent a hot and humid daytime outside. I ordered “Milo Cocktail” because Milo is the chocolate malt beverage. Interestingly, this cocktail was served by a milk carton shaped glass. Although this glass did not capture the unique aroma the cocktail, it certainly improved my drinking experience because Milo is often served with milk and thus it tasted like Milo milky cocktail.
In a recent commercial of KitKat, a female flight attendant fails to call the last passenger to the gate, eats a piece of Kitkat, then raps and beat boxes at the mic, and then finds the lost passenger. Unfortunately, we were confused about it because rapping has nothing to do with the passenger, and we were irritated about her relatively poor rapping skill. We believe these obstacles fail to deliver the brand’s advantages to viewers.
However, we found that women were more likely to consume chocolates than men, in particular, when they were depressed or agitated. There is even a special Swiss chocolate called “Frauenmond” that makes menstrual pain goes away. Judging by these facts, our new commercial targets at 20 – 30s women who feel unhappy for no specific reason and positions Kitkat as a medicine for emotional problem of women. We embed this concept into a story about a man who is confused about his girlfriend’s suddenly aggressive behavior. He runs to a nearby pharmacy, looks for a medicine for his lover. The pharmacist hands over Kitkat as a solution. When the girlfriend eats Kitkat, she becomes happy and cheerful as usual.
Uniqlo is one of the leading “fast-fashion” or SPA (specialty retailer of private label apparel) brands. It sells comfortable and affordable life-wear clothes. In April 2016, Uniqlo launched its sports brand called Uniqlo sports and aired the commercial of “Why are you wearing clothes?” As for the target, it appeales to the people who prefer wearing comfortable clothes. As for the message, it emphasizes that Uniqlo is not only for comfort but also for lifestyle and style. Although this commercial is not hated by many people, the scope of its target audience is too broad and the message is not clear. Therefore, we address these two issues in our new commercial.
Note that, different from the better established sports brands such as Nike or Adidas, people have virtually no idea about Uniqlo sports. This is because they have insufficient information about the innovative functionality of Uniqlo sports. Therefore, we aim to get people informed about Uniqlo sports in the new commercial.
Our proposed new message is sports-wear in daily life. We change the target audience to the age of 10s to 20s who like to play sports. Our sub-target is a group of people between 30s and 40s who like outdoor activities and enjoy wearing comfortable clothes. In our new commercial, we compared between two students; one wears daily clothes and the other one wears Uniqlo sports. When they both receive at the same time the identical message saying “Let’s play basketball,” the person who wore daily clothes goes back home, changes his uncomfortable clothes, and then comes back to the basketball stadium. However, the other person who wore Uniqlo sports did not have to make travel. We emphasize in the new commercial that if they go with Uniqlo sports, they can exercise whenever they want without changing to other sports wear.